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El Paso Municipal Police Officers' Association urges voters to approve Public Safety Bond
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Real News - October 2019
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Presidents Column
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Los Angeles College Faculty Guild - Local 1521

Moe Biller





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APWU Officers Oath of Office

I, having been duly elected to the office in the ____ of the APWU, AFL-CIO do solemnly pledge to uphold the Constitution and Bylaws of the APWU AFL-CIO, and the (state'Local). I further pledge to perform the duties of my office to the best of my ability. I promise that at the conclusion of my term in office, I will turn over to my successor all books, papers, records and documents that are the property of the APWU. Last, but not least, I promise to purchase only union made aticles whenever available. Failure to perform any of the above will mark me as an indivisual devoid of honor and destitute of integrety.


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Apwu page on APWU History 


Library of Congress

National Postal Museum Smithsonian

 Postal History Pub 100




AFL CIO History Library

10 Geeky Ways to Deliver Mail 


A union view of the last Century

Accident Benefit Association History

APWU compared to NALC

APWU History

APWU History 2

Benjamin Franklin's Desk

Black Postal Workers

Black Postal Workers Book Review

Cesar Chavez

Did you Know?

Chicago Haymarket Riot

Civil Rights and the Labor Movement - Memphis 1968

Columbine Mine Strike

Columbus Milk Strike 1901

Family Friendly Work Place - Unions Make a Difference

Famous Postal Workers

Guide to APWU - Moe Biller Files

GM sit down strike

Haymarket Chronology

History of Collective Bargaining

History of the 204B

History of the APWU

History of Labor Day

Immigration and the Working Class

Immigration Civil Rights, Womens Rights

Joe Hill - The Man that Didn't Die

John L Lewis Museum

Leadville Mine Strike

Ludlow Massacre

Ludlow Massacre 1914

Martin Luther King - I have a Dream speech

Minneapolis Teamsters Strike

Moe Biller, Remembering

Moe Biller - A Tribute

Moving the Mail

Mr. Zip

Postal Delivery

Postage Rates

Postal History Photos (USPS)

Postal History (wired magazine)

Postal Inspectors

Postal Mechanization

Postal Terms

Q & A about the APWU

Richard Kielbowicz Research about Postal History and Policy

Ring Knife History

Sanitation Workers Strike Memphis 1968

Some Real Facts about the USPS

Standing Tall - NALC 2010 The Stike of 1970

The Great Postal Strike

The Story of Mouseland

Trade Unions - Then and Now

Unearthing Ludlow

Union MIners Cementary

 USPS Motto

USPS Mission

USPS Overview

USPS Strike 1970

Washington's Birthday Holiday

White Shirt Day


History of APWU salaries


Courtesy of Postal Employee Network

* Indicates contracts that were decided in arbitration
  Source: APWU

Date Salary Increase
1969 $8,442  
(Prior to the enactment of the Postal Reorganization Act)    
1970 $9,657 14.39%
Following the March 1970 strike by postal employees, the enactment of the Postal Reorganization Act mandated salary increases of no less than 6 percent effective Dec. 27, 1969, and 8 percent effective July 18, 1970, as well as a continuation of federal benefits.
1971 – 1973 $11,073 14.66%
The 1971 negotiations resulted in a contract that continued postal work rules and working conditions; provided for salary increases, and included a “capped” cost-of-living adjustment (COLA). All the major postal unions were part of a single bargaining committee, and the two-year agreement was ratified by the members of the unions.    
1973 – 1975 $13,483 21.76%
Agreement was reached prior to the expiration of the statutory negotiations period (90 days). The COLA cap was lifted. The two year agreement was ratified by the membership. All major postal unions were included in a single bargaining committee.
1975 – 1978 $16,501 22.38%
A negotiated agreement was reached within the statutory period, with flat dollar salary increases in each year of the contract. The three-year agreement was ratified by union members. All major postal unions participated in the bargaining committee.
1978 – 1981* $21,630 31.08%
Negotiations resulted in a tentative agreement that included a capped COLA. The APWU Rank-and-File Bargaining Advisory Committee rejected the agreement, as did union members. Binding arbitration – provided for under the Postal Reorganization Act – was invoked to resolve the impasse. Arbitrator James J. Healy was retained to decide the COLA and no-layoff provisions. Locals threatened to strike. The bargaining committee included the APWU, National Association of Letter Carriers, and National Postal Mail Handlers Union. The National Rural Letters Carriers Association negotiated separately. The arbitrator’s ruling uncapped the COLA and required six years of continuous service to achieve protection against layoff. The contract term was three years.
1981 – 1984 $24,173 11.76%
Negotiations resulted in a tentative agreement within the statutory period. The bargaining committee included the APWU and NALC. The three-year agreement was ratified by the membership of the two unions. The National Postal Mail Handlers Union and National Rural Letter Carriers Association negotiated separately.    
1984 – 1987* $27,401 13.35%
Negotiations resulted in arbitration. Arbitrator Clark Kerr interpreted the standard of “wage comparability” required by the Postal Reorganization Act, and issued an award covering a 42-month period. The bargaining committee included the APWU and NALC.
1987 – 1990 $31,766 15.93%
Negotiations resulted in a three-year tentative agreement, which was ratified by the membership. The bargaining committee included the APWU and NALC.
1990 – 1994* $35,604 12.08%
Negotiations resulted in referral to arbitration. Arbitrator Richard Mittenthal imposed a four-year agreement, which included Transitional Employees. He referred the issue of the employer’s contribution to health benefit premiums to a separate process. Arbitrator Rolph Valtin decided the issue of health benefits premium payment in 1993, which resulted in a 4 percent increase in employees’ share of healthcare costs. The APWU and NALC bargained together.
1994 – 1998* $37,831 6.25%
Negotiations resulted in referral to arbitration. Arbitrator Jack Clarke imposed a four-year agreement. Each of the postal unions bargained separately.    
1998 – 2000 $40,472 6.98%
Negotiations resulted in a two-year agreement, which was ratified by the membership. Each of the postal unions bargained separately.
2000 – 2003* $43,099 6.49%
Negotiations resulted in referral to arbitration. Arbitrator Stephen B. Goldberg imposed a three-year agreement. Each postal union negotiated separately.
2003 – 2005 $45,997 6.72%
APWU and USPS agreed to a two-year extension of the 2000- 2003 contract. The extension was ratified by the membership.
2005 – 2006 $47,996 4.35%
APWU and USPS agreed to a one-year contract extension, which was ratified by the membership.
2006 – 2010 (Estimated at) $52,747 9.90%
APWU and USPS agreed to a four-year contract, which was ratified by the membership.    
The chart above reflects the contracts between the USPS and the major postal unions. Other postal employees represented by labor unions also have engaged in bargaining with the Postal Service. In total there have been 88 agreements – with 64 agreed to voluntarily, 20 referred to impasse arbitration, three involving fact finding, and one referred to mediation.

At the conclusion of the 2006-2010 contract, postal workers’ salaries will have increased – from $8,442 in 1969 – to an estimated $52,747.

* Indicates contracts that were decided in arbitration


Courtesy of Postal Employee Network
Source APWU - Download This Chart



The National Postal Museum Needs Your Help

The Smithsonian National Postal Museum is looking for photographs and memorabilia of postal employees at work. The museum is especially interested in photographs of employees from the 1940s to the present. The photographs are being sought in connection with the upcoming “Portrait of the Postal Worker” exhibit, scheduled to open in March 2010.

In addition to photographs, the museum is also interested in any memorabilia that might be connected to organizing efforts, as well as items that might be associated with employee representatives’ working at the calling.  There is also some interest in items that might be related to various Postal “Teams” that were part of employees’ extracurricular activities, such as softball, basketball or perhaps bowling teams that engaged in league play outside the four walls of the Post Office.  Locally adopted charities would also make a great topic for inclusion in the exhibit by demonstrating the community ties often exhibited by postal employees. 

At this time, the exhibit is still in the conceptual stage and the museum is not yet actively collecting items that would be considered memorabilia.  If you have such items and are interested in either donating them or lending them to the museum for this exhibit, please take a picture of the item(s) and send it, along with the type of information listed below, to the museum.  The museum will contact you at a later date when they are prepared to take donation or loan of the actual item.

While only some of the photographs and memorabilia received will be used in the exhibit, they will all become part of the museum’s curatorial research collection. All of the photographs will be available to future public inquiry, scholars and researchers. Each photograph and piece of memorabilia should be accompanied by as much information as possible, including:

  • Date and location of photograph
  • Name of person/people in photograph
  • Name of photographer
  • Permission from subject and photographer (when possible) for the museum to use the photograph in public venues (publication, exhibit, etc.)
  • Similar information should be provided for memorabilia as is appropriate to each item to identify where it originated and the story behind the piece.

If you have any questions about this project, you may contact the museum directly. Photographs and inquiries may be sent directly to Curator Nancy Pope. Photographs may be sent in negative, print or electronic form. Electronic images should be scanned at a minimum of 300 dpi at a size of 10” for at least one side.

Nancy A. Pope
Smithsonian National Postal Museum
2 Massachusetts Ave., NE
MRC 570, PO Box 37012
Washington, DC 20013-7012



U. S. Postal Service Overview

Section 1—Postal Organization

The Postal Service is one of the largest civilian organizations, employing nearly 700,000 full-time career employees and 100,000 part-time employees. With annual revenues of more than $70 billion, the Postal Service delivers over 200 billion pieces of mail every year to more than 146 million delivery points.

USPS has headquarters in Washington, D.C., but maintains postal facilities throughout the United States, including nearly 37,000 post offices, stations, branches and contract units. The Postal Service is governed by a nine-member Board of Governors, whose members are appointed by the President with Senate confirmation. The nine Governors then select a Postmaster General, who becomes a member of the Board. Those 10 select a Deputy Postmaster General, who also serves on the Board.

The nine Governors of the Postal Service are appointed for staggered nine-year terms and can be removed only for cause. In addition, no more than five Governors may belong to the same political party. The Postmaster General serves at the pleasure of the Governors for an indefinite period and is the Chief Executive Officer of the Postal Service. The Deputy Postmaster General serves at the pleasure of the Postmaster General and the Board.

The Board directs the exercise of the powers of the Postal Service, directs and controls its expenditures, reviews its practices, conducts long-range planning, and sets policies on all postal matters. The Board takes up matters such as service standards, capital investments and facilities projects exceeding $25 million. It also approves officer compensation.

Following are the current members of the Board of Governors:

Alan C. Kessler, Chairman
Carolyn Lewis Gallagher, Vice Chairman
Mickey D. Barnett, Member
James H. Bilbray, Member
Louis J. Giuliano, Member
Thurgood Marshall, Jr., Member
James C. Miller III, Member
Katherine C. Tobin, Member
Ellen C. Williams, Member
John E. Potter, Postmaster General and CEO
Patrick R. Donahoe, Deputy Postmaster General and COO

There are two general divisions within the Postal Service, each headed by a vice president. One division is composed of processing and distribution sites, such as bulk mail centers and the second is composed of 90 customer service districts managing all the post offices.

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The Postal Service announced in November 2002 that it had been overfunding its Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) account for 30 years and owed $5 billion, instead of $32 billion, to the fund. If Congress approves a change in the Postal Service’s funding payment schedule, it will have to pay $2.9 billion less into the CSRS fund for 2002 and $2.6 billion less for the next several years than it thought it would. The post office’s financing formula includes 30-year and 15-year amortization schedules aimed at covering retirement costs linked to postal employee pay raises and cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs). Postmaster General John E. Potter said the reduction in pension contributions would be used to pay down the debt and keep postal rates steady until 2006.

A review team led by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) discovered that the USPS had been overpaying the billions of dollars. It found the statutory formula that sets the rate for pension payments was out of whack, in part because of higher-than-anticipated yields on pension investments. The Postal Service paid $152.1 billion into CSRS to cover annuities for postal workers and was due to pay $91.5 billion more in future payments, under the formula. That figure, it turned out, was $71 billion higher than the amount needed to cover the cost of future postal retirements, officials said.

The Postal Service subsequently announced that it had a surplus of $27 billion. Potter stressed that the agency would continue to cut costs, consolidate mail-handling plants and urge Congress to permit more flexibility in the processing and pricing of mail.

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Section 2—Labor Unions and Employee Organizations

An overwhelming majority of postal employees belong to either labor unions or one of the management or supervisory organizations. The 1970 Postal Reorganization Act authorized collective bargaining on wages and working conditions under laws applying to the private sector and provided for binding arbitration if an impasse persists 180 days after the start of bargaining. The ability of many postal employees to bargain over their pay rates is a right that is not enjoyed by other federal employees, although postal workers, like other federal employees, are still barred from striking.

Four large postal unions represent most postal workers and negotiate for them during collective bargaining. They are:

  • The American Postal Workers Union, AFL-CIO, representing more than 300,000 postal workers in the clerk, maintenance and motor vehicle crafts.
  • The National Association of Letter Carriers, AFL-CIO, representing about 300,000 active and retired members, of which more than 214,000 are active city delivery carriers.
  • The National Rural Letter Carriers Association, representing 109,000 postal workers.
  • The National Postal Mail Handlers Union, representing more than 55,000 postal workers.

In addition to the four major unions, there are smaller unions representing postal inspectors and postal nurses.

Three management associations represent postal supervisors and postmasters. These associations cannot bargain over pay issues like the unions but they do negotiate over other working conditions. The associations are:

  • The National Association of Postal Supervisors. NAPS represents 35,000 active and retired supervisors and managers.
  • The National Association of Postmasters of the United States. NAPUS represents more than 42,000 active and retired postmasters and officers in charge.
  • The National League of Postmasters. The League represents 27,000 active and retired postmasters.

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Section 3—Postal Pay General Salary Structures

There are two general types of salary structures used by the postal service, as well as a specialized structure for rural letter carriers.

The two general salary structures are:

  • PS-Postal Service salary structure. Applicable to bargaining unit personnel (clerks, carriers, etc.) except rural letter carriers, mailhandlers, nurses, and postal police officers.
  • EAS-Executive and Administrative Salary structure. Applicable to executives, professionals, supervisors, postmasters, and technical, administrative and clerical non-bargaining employees. Salary grades in the schedule range from EAS-1 through EAS-26. Postmasters whose offices are open less than 40 hours per week are on a separate schedule.

The pay period for all employees begins on Saturday and covers a 2-week period ending on Friday. Employees are paid every 2 weeks following the end of the pay period.

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Section 4—Postal Employee Benefits

Postal employees generally receive the same benefits as other federal employees with a few exceptions.

Retirement—Postal Service career employees, like federal career employees, are covered by one of three retirement systems administered by OPM: the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and by CSRS Offset. FERS is a retirement system with both defined benefit and defined contribution components. Under FERS, employees receive retirement benefits from a federal retirement annuity, Social Security, and the Thrift Savings Plan. The FERS annuity benefit, while also based on an employee’s high-three average salary and years of service, produces a smaller benefit than CSRS does. CSRS is a defined benefit retirement system. Annuity benefits are based on an employee’s high-three average salary and years of service. CSRS Offset is similar to CSRS but requires Social Security contributions. Upon Social Security eligibility, the CSRS annuity is reduced by any Social Security benefit resulting from periods of CSRS Offset service, to produce a benefit equivalent to what would have been received under CSRS.

Health Insurance—The Postal Service participates in the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and all postal employees can receive health insurance coverage through that plan with the cost split between the Postal Service and the worker. For most federal employees the split is determined by Congress. However, postal unions negotiate the actual split as part of the collective bargaining agreements, so postal workers often pay a different amount than other federal workers, and postal workers from different unions may pay different amounts. Postal employees should review the health benefits section of the Almanac for complete information on how the FEHBP works, premium amounts and plan contact information.

Life Insurance—The Postal Service offers life insurance coverage through the Federal Employees Life Insurance Program. However, while other federal employees must pay part of the cost of the basic coverage, the Postal Service pays the entire premium amount for its active employees. There are additional options for purchasing more insurance through the FEGLI program. Postal employees should review the life insurance section in the Almanac for more details.

Flexible Spending Accounts—Employees can use Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs) to pay for certain health care and dependent care expenses with contributions made through pretax payroll deductions. FSAs were first offered in 1992 to certain non-bargaining unit employees and now include all employees. Employees experience tax savings as well, which vary according to the individual’s contribution amounts and marginal tax rates.

Thrift Savings Plan—Postal employees may participate in the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), which is administered by the Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board. The rules for TSP participation differ depending on the employee’s retirement system. For FERS employees, the Postal Service contributes one percent of basic pay to TSP, fully matches employee contributions up to 3 percent of basic pay, and matches one-half of employee contributions from 3 to 5 percent of basic pay. The Postal Service does not match CSRS or CSRS-Offset employee contributions to the TSP.

Leave—Postal Service employees are provided both sick and annual leave at the same rate as other federal sector employees. However, postal employees have a higher annual leave carryover limit than their federal sector counterparts. Earned annual leave may be donated to other career or transitional Postal Service employees who have exhausted their own leave and have a serious health problem. The Postal Service allows the use of 80 hours of accrued sick leave for dependent care under a policy available to all career employees.

Family and Medical Leave—Postal employees are covered by the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act, which provides time off for employees who are dealing with serious health conditions. The law provides that eligible employees can take up to 12 workweeks of leave within a Postal Service leave year for the following: birth or adoption of a child, taking in a child for foster care, caring for a family member with a serious health condition, or dealing with the employee’s own serious health condition. Time taken for family and medical leave can be taken as annual leave, sick leave, leave without pay or a combination of those.

Holidays—The Postal Service observes the 10 designated federal holidays each year. They are: New Year’s Day, January 1; Martin Luther King Jr.’s Birthday, third Monday in January; Presidents’ Day, third Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, July 4; Labor Day, first Monday in September; Columbus Day, second Monday in October; Veterans Day, November 11; Thanksgiving Day, fourth Thursday in November; Christmas Day, December 25.

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For More Information about United States Postal Service workplace practices and policies, see the current edition of the Federal Employees Almanac.
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Encyclopedia > Federal holiday

In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. Non-essential federal government offices are closed. Banks are generally closed as well. All federal employees are paid for the holiday; those who are required to work on the holiday receive wages for that day in addition to holiday pay. Stock and futures exchanges also close on these holidays,Bold text This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... ... “Banker� redirects here. ...


List of Holidays

Most federal holidays in the United States are created by Congress and are listed in Title V of the United States Code (5 U.S.C. § 6103).[1]. Holidays can also be created by presidential proclamation, but their observance - as with all executive orders - is not binding upon future presidents, any of whom may retract the proclamation of a holiday (but this is not possible with a holiday created by Act of Congress). Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ... Title 5 of the United States Code outlines the role of government organization and employees in the United States Code. ...

Constitutionally, there are no "national holidays" in the United States because Congress only has authority to create holidays for federal employees and institutions (including federally-owned or leased properties), and for the District of Columbia. Instead, there are federal holidays, state holidays, city holidays, and so on.

Currently, there are thirteen U.S. Federal holidays, most (but not all) of which are also state holidays in all 50 jurisdictions. Individual states often have additional holidays of their own (e.g., Cesar Chavez Day on March 31 is a California state holiday which celebrates the birthday of Cesar Chavez). Two of the federal holidays - Mother's Day and Father's Day - always fall on Sunday, so they are not noticed as federal holidays; but they were so proclaimed just the same. March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 2003 USPS stamp featuring Chávez and the fields that were so important to him César Estrada Chávez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American farm worker, labor leader, and activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. ... A celebratory Mothers Day cookie cake. ... Fathers Day is a primarily secular holiday inaugurated in the early 20th century to complement Mothers Day in celebrating fatherhood and parenting by males, and to honor and commemorate fathers and forefathers. ...

Date Official Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day Celebrates beginning of the Gregorian calendar year. Festivities include countdowns to midnight (12:00 AM). (one of four "bank holidays" that were created before 1870)
Third Monday in January Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. Honors Martin Luther King, Jr., Civil Rights leader; combined with other holidays in several states (King's birthday was January 15; Congress created the federal holiday in 1983)
January 20, every fourth year, following Presidential election Inauguration Day Swearing-in of President of the United States and other elected federal officials. A holiday only in the District of Columbia and certain neighboring counties and cities in Maryland and Virginia. Note: The formal holiday is celebrated on January 21 when January 20 falls on a Sunday, but the President is still inaugurated on the 20th because that date is specified by the U.S. Constitution and cannot be changed without a constitutional amendment.
Third Monday in February Washington's Birthday Honors George Washington. Often popularly observed as "Presidents Day" in recognition of other American presidents, such as Abraham Lincoln (who was born February 12). The legal name of the federal holiday, however, is "Washington's Birthday", not "Presidents Day". (historically observed on February 22, prior to passage of the Monday Holiday Bill by Congress; Washington's Birthday was created a federal holiday in 1879)
Second Monday in May Mother's Day Honors motherhoold and all mothers. (first observed in 1908; proclaimed a federal holiday, fixed to the second Sunday in May, by President Woodrow Wilson in 1914)
Last Monday in May Memorial Day Also known as "Decoration Day", Memorial Day originated in the nineteenth century as a day to remember the soldiers who gave their lives in the American Civil War by decorating their graves with flowers. Later, the practice of decorating graves came to include members of ones own family, whether they saw military service or not. Memorial Day is traditionally the beginning of the summer season in America. (historically observed on May 30, prior to the Monday Holiday Bill; first observance, as "Decoration Day", 1866, in New York; first national observance, 1868; created a federal holiday as "Memorial Day", 1967)
Third Sunday in June Father's Day Honors fatherhood and all fathers. (first observed in 1908, it was officially made a holiday by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966 but was not officially recognized until 1972, under the administration of President Richard M. Nixon).
July 4 Independence Day Celebrates the signing of the Declaration of Independence. More commonly known as "the Fourth of July". (one of the four 'bank holidays' that existed in 1870)
First Monday in September Labor Day Celebrates achievements of workers and the labor movement. Labor Day traditionally marks the end of the summer season in America, and frequently still immediately precedes the first day of primary and secondary school. (holiday first observed in 1882)
Second Monday in October Columbus Day Honors Christopher Columbus, who landed in the Americas on October 12, 1492. In some areas it is also a celebration of Italian culture and heritage. (historically observed on October 12, prior to the Monday holiday bill; first observed as a state holiday in 1907; proclaimed a federal holiday by President Roosevelt, 1937)
November 11 Veterans Day Also known as Armistice Day, and very occasionally called "Remembrance Day", 'Veterans Day' is the American label for the international holiday which commemorates the signing of the Armistice ending World War I. It honors all veterans of the United States Armed Forces, whether or not they have served in a conflict; but it especially honors the surviving veterans of World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. In effect, every year, at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, the entire world pauses to remember. (the American holiday was briefly moved to the final Monday in October under the Monday Holiday Bill, but the change was greatly disliked and soundly criticized - among other reasons, because it put Veterans Day out of sync with international observance; so it was restored to November 11; first observed in the United States in 1919, and made a federal holiday in 1926)
Fourth Thursday in November Thanksgiving Day Celebrates the bounty of America and the harvest, commonly with consumption of a turkey dinner. It is the traditional start of the Christmas season in the United States. The day after Thanksgiving is called "Black Friday" and is, quite literally, the single most important sales day for American retailers. The success of Black Friday often determines whether a retail business will end the year "in the black" (with a financial profit) or "in the red" (with a financial loss). (historically observed on various days, finally becoming to the fourth Thursday of November in 1941; a federal holiday since 1863, and one of the four bank holidays that existed in 1870, but with roots going back to the English and Spanish colonial periods - the first being a thanksgiving celebration in what is now El Paso, Texas - then, part of "New Spain" - in 1598; the second, a 1619 thanksgiving day in the Virginia Colony; and, in 1621, the famous proto-typical thanksgiving feast was held in the Plymouth Colony by the Pilgrims)
December 25 Christmas Day Simultaneously a religious holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on 25 December in most Christian faiths; and a secular holiday, which emphasizes family togetherness, kindness and goodwill toward all people. The secular side of the holiday includes the exchange of gifts and decoration of a Christmas Tree. (one of the four bank holidays that existed in 1870, having been established by leaders of the Christmas Reform Movement, to rehabilitate the secular festival from two weeks of drunken revelry into a series of days focused on hearth and home, family and children)

Under the Uniform Monday Holiday Bill of 1968 (effective 1971), Washington's Birthday (February 22), Memorial Day (May 30), Columbus Day (October 12), and Veterans Day (November 11) were assigned, respectively, to the third Monday of February, final Monday of May, second Monday of October, and final Monday of October. Veterans groups and all 50 states refused to accept the shift of Veterans Day from November 11, however, and Congress was eventually forced to move it back to its original position on the calendar in 1980. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... (Redirected from 12 hour clock) The 12-hour clock is a timekeeping convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem (AM, Latin for before noon) and post meridiem (PM, Latin for after noon). Each period consists of 12 hours numbered 12... The Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. ... “Martin Luther Kingâ€? redirects here. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Inauguration Day is the day on which the President of the United States is sworn in and takes office. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Presidents Day is the common name for the United States federal holiday officially designated as Washingtons Birthday. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... The Uniform Monday Holiday Act (public law no. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... Fathers Day is a primarily secular holiday inaugurated in the early 20th century to complement Mothers Day in celebrating fatherhood and parenting by males, and to honor and commemorate fathers and forefathers. ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... These fireworks over the Washington Monument are typical of Fourth of July celebrations In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. ... A copy of the 1823 William J. Stone reproduction of the Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies were independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Labour Day (or Labor Day) is an annual holiday that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrated in many countries in the Americas, commemorating the date of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World on October 12, 1492. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... President Eisenhower signs HR7786, officially changing Armistice Day to Veterans Day. ... “The Great War â€? redirects here. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... “The Great War â€? redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki TÅ?jÅ? Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual one-day holiday to give thanks, traditionally to God, for the things one has at the end of the harvest season. ... Turkey Dinner is the sixth episode of the seventh series of the British comedy series Dads Army that was originally transmitted on Monday the 23 December 1974. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... Adoration of the Shepherds (1535-40), by Florentine Mannerist painter Agnolo Bronzino Nativity windows at Trinity Church, Boston, designed by Edward Burne-Jones and executed by William Morris, 1882 The Nativity of Jesus, or simply the Nativity, is the account of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... A Christmas tree from 1900. ... The Office of Personnel Management (or OPM) is an Independent Agency of the United States Government that manages the civil service of the federal government. ...

Whenever any federal holiday falls on a weekend (excepting those, like Mother's Day, which are established as weekend holidays), the formal holiday is observed as it falls - that is, the new year still starts on January 1, Christmas presents are still opened on the morning of December 25, and fireworks to celebrate American independence are still set off on July 4. But the 'informal' side of the holiday, i.e., the day off from work, is shifted to the nearest weekday. So, if Christmas falls on Saturday, most public and private sector employees typically get Friday, December 24 as a holiday, since they would normally not work on Saturday. Or when Independence Day falls on Sunday, the day off happens on Monday. Inauguration Day is the exception. When January 20 falls on Sunday, the President is inaugurated, as the Constitution demands, but the formal festivities are moved to Monday, January 21.

It is also common (though far from universal) for private employers to provide an extra day off when a major holiday falls on a Tuesday or Thursday, thereby creating an extra-long weekend. For example, if New Year's Day is on Tuesday, many businesses will close for the Monday between the weekend and the holiday, just as many close for the Friday between Thanksgiving and the weekend. This is almost never done in government, however, because of the cost to taxpayers. The day after thanksgiving is a regular working day for employees of the U.S. Government, though a number of state governments do observe the day after Thanksgiving as a holiday.

The Free Speech and other provisions of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prevent any level of government from compelling any person to observe a particular holiday. Neither are private employers required to observe any legal holidays, for the same reason - except for private sector business which are regulated by the federal government pursuant to a provision in the U.S. Constitution (e.g., federally chartered banks must observe statutory federal holidays). Most businesses and private citizens do observe New Year's Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day (many also observing the Day After Thanksgiving), and Christmas Day. Note: The establishment of Christmas as a federal and state holiday does not offend the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment because, 1) it was established as a legal holiday before most Americans (then, mostly Calvinist and Calvinistic Protestants) observed Christmas as a religious holiday, 2)no one is compelled to observe it, and 3) enough people 'do' observe the holiday that there would be no point to opening a government office on Christmas Day, because few or no people would be there - either to provide or receive service. The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...

Similarly, the limitations placed upon the United States Government by the U.S. Constitution (especially the Tenth Amendment) prevent federal law from compelling any state, municipal or other local government to observe or recognize federal holidays in any way. For many years, New Hampshire and Arizona infamously refused to make Martin Luther King, Jr's. birthday a state holiday. The Tenth Amendment may refer to the: Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights. ...

Practically, most states 'have' established all 13 federal holidays as state holidays, but not always with the same name; and they are not observed to the same degree. Some states, for example, have "Washington and Lincoln's Birthdays" instead of just "Washington's Birthday". The legal name of any holiday comes from the legislation or executive proclamation that creates it. Popular names, on the other hand, originate with the general public and/or tradition. The "Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr." holiday is commonly called "Martin Luther King Day", and the "Washington's Birthday" holiday is commonly called "Presidents' Day". Independence Day is often called "The 4th of July".

Public holidays due to Presidential Proclamation

Federal law also provides for the declaration of other public holidays by the President of the United States. Generally the president will provide a reasoning behind the elevation of the day, and call on the people of the United States to observe the day "with appropriate ceremonies and activities." However, federal government offices are not usually closed on these days, and many members of the general public may not be aware that such holidays even exist. As with statutory holidays created by Congress and/or state and local legislatures, there can be no requirement that private citizens and businesses actually observe these holidays. Religious Freedom Day (January 16) National Sanctity of Human Life Day (Third Sunday in January) Martin Luther King Jr. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ...

For example, by Executive Order, President George W. Bush declared January 2, 2007 a "National Day of Mourning" in honor of former President Gerald Ford and ordered all executive departments, independent establishments, and other governmental agencies closed. This did not apply to governmental agencies that should remain open for reasons of national security or defense or other essential public business. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... this guy is awsome i played him in a school play he also has some pretty funky history Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ...


Some people have objected to honoring Martin Luther King, Jr. and/or Christopher Columbus with holidays. As a result, Martin Luther King Day took several years to gain national acceptance and is called "Human Rights Day" in some locations. Some local jurisdictions observe "Indigenous Peoples of the Americas Day" instead of "Columbus Day". Similarly, some public schools in the US re-name the vacation taken near and after Christmas "Winter Holiday" or "Winter Break", to avoid the implication that all students are obligated to observe Christian or nominally Christian holidays. State and local legal names for any particular holiday do not have any bearing upon the names of federal holidays. “Martin Luther King� redirects here. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that marks the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. ...

See also

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... Religious Freedom Day (January 16) National Sanctity of Human Life Day (Third Sunday in January) Martin Luther King Jr. ...

External links


Results from FactBites:
The King Center (1168 words)
Federal Holiday Commission, to last for a term of five years, with an option to renew for another 5 years.
The King Holiday Commissioners are sworn in by federal district Judge Horace Ward.
Federal Holiday and Service Act, expanding the mission of the holiday as a day of community service, interracial cooperation and youth anti-violence initiatives.
Federal holiday - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (689 words)
In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government.
Holidays that fall on a Saturday are observed on the previous Friday, and those that fall on a Sunday are observed the following Monday.
Holidays proclaimed in this way may be considered a "national holiday," but it would be improper to refer to them as a "federal holiday".
  More results at FactBites »


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